study guide

Thesis: the main point, very specific
: the conclusion to an argument

conclusion: propositions supported by premises

proposition: statement that can be true of false

Game Theory: designed as a way to model ethical decisions

Prisoners Dilemma: always better off tattling unless both people can keep quiet.

Humans have reasoning skills for dealing with moral problems
: when do we chose to use these reasoning skills?
: this question may be a moral question in itself

Strategies in Prisoners Dilemma
:cooperate is best for group
:compete is best for self
best:
:"tit for tat"
: first time you cooperate
: after that you copy your opponent

The Republic by Plato ( 420 B.C -350 B.C)

Plato
:great philosopher
:two brothers: Adeimantus, Glaucon- "bright eyes" going to be leaders of Athens and asking "why should i lead for Athens.."
:Republic is Plato's most famous and longest work
:called Politeia // in Greek, meaning On Justice; framed around the idea of justice

Socrates
:was Plato's teacher, puts forth views through Plato's writing
:put to death for corrupting the youth
:teaching the young about justice thinks you should make everyone better, don't apply different rules to the good and the bad
:says young can't control themselves and only think of desire and pleasure
:says leaders are good when they do good for those they lead, most leaders who are good at getting elected are bad at leading ( different set of skills)
:just person is only one who is self sufficient
:asks best way cephelos can spend his money-what's the best thing about being rich?

cephalos answers:
: says paying off God is the best way to spend money
: best thing about being rich is he can take care of his soul and be just

socrates responds:
:if money lets you be just then waht does it mean to me just?

Cephalos- means head (old)
:gives first definition of justice: speak the truth, pay your debts
:can't do things he used to
:glad to have passed that stage of his life, happy to be older

Polemarchus-war chief (young)
:Cephalos' son
:"eye for an eye" type if justice- fitting for a war chief
:gives second definition: help friends, hurt enemies
:at the end sort of persuaded by Socrates

Justice relates to things being in their rightful place

Thrasymachus- mad dog
:gives third: more controversial- justice doesn't matter
:part of a group that teaches arguing- Sophists- wise guys, people who want to win an argument even using dirty tactics, uses bullying techniques, care more about winning arguments then being right, he's an asshole
:things it's "just" when people make laws to benefit themselves, Socrates thinks this is unjust
:justice isn't actually good, why should i even be just?
:you shouldn't be just if you can get away with it
:Justice is what's good for the strong- rulers of the world strong like sheepdog herding us around, justice is a tool the strong use to keep the weak in line, rulers of the world are really good wolves and keep us sheep around and eat us at their will

: Socrates says Thrasymachus is wrong, justice is what's good for the weak

Socrates and Thrasymachus: are to direct/shepherd the future leaders of Athens ( glaucon/ adeimanthus/ polemarchus)

Glaucon
:Always told to do good but never given a reason why
:is justice good in itself?
:: 1. appearance and reality

:: 2. ring of gyges
realize when we can do anything and get away with it, we'll become corrupt
want benefits of seeming just without really being "just"

:: 3. the totally just vs. the totally unjust person
one just person: everyone things unjust because framed for a crime
one unjust person: rich successful everyone loves them, had fooled everyone into thinking he's just

:As long as everyone else things you're "just" that's what matters even if you're not "just"

Good things aren't always good at the start
Good in themselves but not for something else ( Candy, good but bad for your teeth/health)
Glaucon things justice is good for something else but not good in itself (ie: chemotherapy)
Glaucon wants socrates to show him that justice is good both in itself and for something else (Health)

Fallacy: mistake in your reasoning
Naturalistic Fallacy: just because you are a certain way doesn't mean you have to be that way, confusing "is" and "ought"

Descriptive Claims: claims about the way the world "is"
Prescriptive Claims: claims about the way the world "ought" to be
Normative Claims: a type of prescriptive claim: stronger "ought" claims, as in claims about the way things "have" to be
::not all normative claims are moral. they can be ethically bad ie: beat up gay people.

Deontology:
why do we act the way we do? what duties do we have to try to uphold?
most important deontologist: Kant
the reason for doing it- intent
don't do something even if the outcome is better because it goes against principles

Divine Command Theory:
extreme version of deontology
reasons why you act:
A. because God tells me to
B. i can know the unambiguously the will of God
Advantages: do not have to question moral beliefs, very good at motivating people, black and white ethics, straightforward, many examples in bible, torah, ect.
Disadvantages: literalism- not word for word true, God didn't write it - man did, not flexible, commandments old- hard to apply to modern day

Kant: Uses his knowledge to decide what's right vs. wrong, uses God as a backbone but thinks about actions too, emphasizes how we act, what duties am i going to base my actions off of

Consequentialism:
the right way to behave is doind the thing with the best outcome
decide actions based on outcomes

Utilitarianism:
doing the thing that has the best outcome for the most people
type of consequentialism

Ethical Egoism:
Extreme version of consequentialism
what's ethical is what's most beneficial to me
do whatever actions give me the most beneficial outcome, do what's best for themselves
everyone looks out for themselves, then everyone benefits- old school capitalism idea- must acknowledge that everyone is selfish

The Ethical Assasin

Lem: main character
jewish
18 years old
selling encyclopedias in trailer parks in Florida to make money to go to Columbia
benefits from job
people like him, customers
good at his job, feels bad for conning people into buying them

Karen and Bastard
someone kills them
someone shoots them while Lem is trying to sell to them

Man in blue pickup truck
bullying lem, nicknames him "puffy"
Lem calls him a redneck

Jim Doe
crooked cop
tries to rape someone by using authority
she beats him in the crotch and escapes, locking Doe in his car
she turns out to be a reporter

Themes: power and strength

Doe: strong, police officer, symbol of justice- he's unjust while looking just
doesn't care about being moral

Lem: powerless, being a salesman makes him feel powerful, ethical concern about selling to people who he knows can't afford it

Ideology: set of values or ideas through which one looks at the world

Why do we have jails: rehabilitation, easy, even though they don't rehabilitate

Melford doesn't let Lem eat meat: animals mistreated, will force him not to eat animals for utilitarian reasons he claims

2 types of consequentialism:
1.Utilitarianism
2.Ethical egoism

Utilitarianism: Doing the thing that has the best outcome for the greatest number of people - consequentialism.
Act - what you do; every individual act is judged differently
Rule - rules you follow; every situation is based on rule that usually leads to good results

Ethical Egoism - One doing what is best for them and them only.
Hedonist- all are ethical egoists, but not all ethical egoists are hedonists
Hedonic Calculus: can calculate the amount of pleasure/pain; give it a number; Pleasure depends on:
1.Intensity- how good does it feel?
2.Certainty- how sure are you going to get it?
3.Duration- how long will it last?
4. Cost- will it cost any pain? afterwards?
5.Proximity- how soon will I experience the pleasure/ pain?

Consequentialism - they are interested in the end result.

Deontology - focuses on the principles that are used to guide the actions; emphasize reason for doing something (does not matter if outcome is better)

Asceticism- opposite of utility; deny themselves pleasure to remove temptations of this world

Divine Command Theory - It is good because god say's it it good - the bible.
type of deontology; follow rules that God has given, regardless of outcome

Three different claims:
1. Descriptive - the way the world is
2. Prescriptive - the way the world ought to be
3. naturalistic fallacy - confusing the is's and the ought's

Normative - Prescriptive, how things have to be, a very strong ought. Can be ethically bad.
(Melford tried to make normative look descriptive)

Mill - emphasizes happiness and quality(Rule Utilitarianism)

Benthem - emphasized pleasure and quantity (Act Utilitarianism)

*Hey Everyone it's Emily Best, I know that it's kind of late but I added some more to the study guide if you get a chance to read through it before the test tomorrow!*

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