Ok here are some clicker questions we did in class, but I figured that they would be good review.

1) For ulititarinism like Bentham, a murder or rapist deserves to die (True or False)

--Answer: False
*Note: Bentham wants to "reform" them.

2) Bentham says the principle of __ is the opposite of the principle of utility.

--Answer: Asceticism
*Note: Principle of Utility
- maximize pleasure, minimize pain

3) Bentham says that intentions matter more than outcomes (True or False)

--Answer: False
* Deontology is consequestialism, so the ends are more important than the means.

4) Birsch distinguishes between __ and

--Answer: act utilitarianism and rule utilitarianism

Deontology vs. Ulitarianism

  • the thing you should do has the best oursome for the most people as a whole
  • (consequentalism)- emphasises which outcomes are the best.
  • ethical egoism- do what's best for themselves (the maxium benefit for themselves)

All Heidodinist are ethical egoists

--the outcome with the most pleasure.

But, not all ethical egoists are heidonists.

Bentham says, let's give society the most pleasure (heiodinist)


  • reason for doing it (intent)
  • against my principals
  • ex. heavy man being pushed infront of train— a deontoligst would not push the man
  • care less about consequeces, and more about how you got there

Divine Command Theory (Deontoliogist)

--ex: you are stricktly an Orthodox Jew,- use Torah, even if using the Torah leads to an outcome you are not happy with.
—- you work on a project that could make or break your work company. The Torah says to keep the Sabath holy and not work on the project on Sunday. Do you work on the project or not?

--understand the principals:

  • God said it so it's good
    • I do it because God said it's good.
  • outcome doesn't matter
  • what matters is that I did it.

Prisoners Delema

  • You are better off ratting the person out
  • ulitarians- says nothing, good for both
  • Tit-for-Tat stragity
    • play fair for the first time
      • second time, give them what they gave you.
      • Note: This strategy would resemble Polemarchus "help friends, hurt enemies"

The Republic Characters
Their definitions of Justice

  • Cephalus: tell the truth, pay your debts
  • Polemarchus: help friends, hurt enemies (Tit-for-tat)
  • Thrasymachus: justice is the benefit of the strong/ justice is bad, injustice is good.


  1. Descriptive
    1. its the way the world is.
    2. ex: law of gravity: what goes up, must come down.
  2. Prescriptive
    1. the way the world ought to be
    2. Naturalistic Fallacy— confusing is's and ought's ( you SHOULD like this movie over this movie)
  3. Normative
    1. prescriptive- how things have (VERY strong ought). [ex. You shouldn't speed, but you can].
    2. taking active steps to what should be backed up by reason (don't hurt innocent people)
    3. Melford— make normative claim look descriptive
    4. ** can also be backed up by ethical claims
    5. All normative claims are backed up by ethical claims, but some of these ethical claims are wrong.

Bentham vs. Mill
-Bentham emphasizes pleasure (quantity).
-Mill emphasizes happiness (quality).

Stuff after midterm

Clicker questions

1.) Epicureanism is a form of:

-- Hedonism

2.) Bentham's appraoch to ulitiarianism was?

-- Quantitative

3.) For Singer, the question to ask when we decide if animals deserve ethical treatment is:

-- Whether they can suffer

4.) Singer calls someone who doesn't think animals' suffering matters is:

-- A speciesist

5.) According to Singer, Bentham considered the suffering of animals. (True or False)

-- True

April 5, 2010
Once Kant has to speak, does he:
1.Tell the truth because Jigsaw deserves the truth
2.Tell the truth because it is the right thing to do**
3.Tell the truth to protect himself
4.Tell a white lie to preserve face
5.Lie to protect his friend

The utilitarian would: lie to protect his friend

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