Beginning of Group 4 Study Guide

Two types of Utilitarianism
-Act
-Rule

Between the two there is no difference between killing and letting die
Act U- Bentham- based on pleasure which is a quantity compared to quality (Rule). Act U is based on actions you take.
Rule U- Mill- These are the "rules" you follow when making a decision. I believe these are similar to morals someone has. This is based on happiness based on quality. Rule utilitarianism is concerned with how long you are happy or how long pleasure lasts.

Heuristics or "rules of thumb" used by Act utilitarians think on their feet. These will help make decisions real quick that will lead to the best outcome.

Example- saving the drowning family- a family is drowning in a river and you are able to save them, the thing is the family is Hitler along with his family; do you save the family or no?

  1. Act U-

if you knew it was Hitler no because that single action would be bad and "negative pleasure points." Although, following Heuristics you would save the family, because, in a split second decision you would not have the time to do the hedonic calculus, and saving a family is 99% of the time good.

  1. Rule U-

You would save the family because of the "rules" you follow and that would be a "good" thing even though it would be bad in the long run. In simpler terms, save the family because it is good in general. Bentham says you would have "bad moral luck.

Saving Hitler from drowning is doing something good that turns out bad. Although it is a bad action your are not a bad person.

Liss and Ideology

  • Political views/ values looking at the world
  • Way culture produces illusion of normaitve reality, yet seems like a descriptive claim
  • Melford does not allow Lem to eat meat. Melford says that animals and people are equal
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