-Prisoner’s Dilemma: competing/ cooperating
-It is always in your best interest to compete, however for the group, cooperating is helpful.
-If we could all think of things in ethical terms, we might solve it differently.
-By playing the game over and over, it was "tit for tat". This shows that cooperating is better for everyone than competition.

-The Republic: Book I (Plato)
-Plato was put to death for corrupting the youth. Students then put together the conversations between Plato and Socrates (their views were the same). Therefore, it is fictional dialogue with real characters.
- The main questions is: JUSTICE
-“To speak the truth and pay our debts”.
- Poetic justice is getting what you deserve. Karma plays a role in this.
-Socrates on Justice: “Do good to your enemies”. (Giving them what they need to be better people). Ex) education
-Thrasymachus on justice: He believes it is good for the strong. It’s rules, made by the strong for their own good.
-Perverted justice: rules/ laws claim to be just.
-Socrates on shepards: they are shepards in order to not be the sheep. A good shepard wants to make money AND take care of his flock.
-Naturalistic fallacy: confusing IS/OUGHT:
-Thrasymachus (mad dog-man who has gone crazy and now a wolf who protects wolves by corruption and violence) often confuses these two. He says that if you can get away with being just, good for you.
-Sophists: relativists
-Glaucon (Adeimantus):
-Talented, smart, wealthy, and a future leader.
-Decision to either become a shepard or a wolf. He questions Socrates and wants Socrates to show him that good is good in itself and good for something else, rather than it not being good in its self, but good for something else. (refer below)

1)Good itself, but not good for something else. Ex) pleasure
2)Not good itself, but good for something else. Ex) chemo therapy
3)Good itself, and good for something else too. Ex) good health

-The Republic: Book II:
-Socrates view of justice beats out Thrasymachus view. *believes in afterlife.
-Glaucon believes that justice is like #2
-Says the main point is to help others from being able to treat us unjust.
-We like being unjust to people (taking advantage). It is joining the group for survival.
-The group benefits to seem unjust. This is the biggest personal gain.
-Socrates believes it’s better to be just even without reward.
-The unjust person is not at peace and let’s their desires go all ways.
-The just person KNOWS they are right and is ruled by this.

-Western Thought: European culture
- 3 main approaches:
1) Deontology: Focus on duties and principles behind the actions. Divine Command Theory arises from this approach.
-There is some way to unambiguously know the will of God.
-The main reason to act is because it is His will.
2) Consequentialism: Focus on outcomes. Ethical egoism and Utilitarianism arise from this approach.
3) Virtue Theory.
-Birch on Divine Command Theory:
-We should always follow the demands of God.
1) We should be able to know the will of God
2) We should always act because God says too.

1.) Lem Altick - The main character in story who is selling encyclopedia's trying to pay his was through college. While making a sale, he unexpectedly witnessed the murders of Bastard & Karen…this leads him into a load of trouble he would rather not be involved in. Lem must cooperate w/ the assassin or the assassin will frame him for the murder and Lem will be framed.
2.) Melford Kean (the assassin-murderer of Bastard & Karen). He believes in ideology and doing what is just in his eyes, the eyes of true justice. He had felt that Karen & Bastard were bad people so they were to be killed. Another characteristic of Melford does not eat mean and would not let Lem eat any, because he thinks that it tourture and eating of innocent animals. He said that it is cruel & unjust. Why should an animal have to die for us to eat? People says its okay to eat animals so people do it.
3.) Bastard & Karen - Two people who were killed at the house Lem was selling the encyclopedia's at. "Moochers"
4.) Gambler is the Boss of the Encyclopedia company & is involved in a lot of dirty work outside the business.
5.) Jim Doe - Crooked cop who looks good as if he is doing just but is actually not, works with the Gambler in comminiting alot of dirty work. Jim doe murders Laurel inside Karens house. (THIRD BODY)
6.) Laurel-Karens mother who is murdered by Jim Doe.
7.) Desireeonce a women strung out on Crank until B.B came along and cleaned her up and took her into his home, she is like B.B's assistant.
8.) B.B owner of the Encyclopedia company. He appears to have much money, came along way compared to his past (he grew up on a stinky farm with his mean grandpa) B.B spends time mentoring boys and seems to have a thing for boys (pedafile) but will never admitt it
9.) Ronny Neil, Scott & Kevin the other 3 guys on the Ft. Lauderdale encyclopedia selling team. *Kevin was pretty quiet, easy to forget he was around. Ronny & Scott are more loud & obnoxious, always clowning around, very rude.
Bobby like the Captain of the Ft. Lauderdale team. Very good at selling encyclopedia's.


The ethical Assassin Ch 1-12 summary

The main charter so far is Lem Altick. Lem teenager living in Dlorida he just got out of high school and what’s to go to Columbia University. The thing is Lem doesn’t have enough of money to pay for Columbia. Then you will think, why does Lem Altick what to go to this expensive college, the reason is his step father told Lem he should try to apply to those big name schools like Yale and Harvard. When Lem was going to high school he was fat, and his step father didn’t like that, so he pushed Lem to lose weight. How did his step father pushed Lem to lose weight is by giving him a dollar for every mile he ran and ten dollars for every five consecutive mile he ran. Then Lem step father pushed Lem to apply of the big name colleges and said you pay as much as you can and I will see how I can help to pay the rest of it. When time came for Lem step father Andy to give Lem the money he needed, he said I’m not going to help you pay. So Lem when had to find some other way to get that money, so he goes with Bobby to sell encyclopedias; Bobby is Lem Boss and is very good in selling encyclopedias. Lem goes to Karen house were Bastared, her boyfriend, was there to sell Karen some encyclopedias. The thing is Karen doesn’t have any children, so there was no reason why Karen shouldn’t have let Lem in the door, because Lem sells encyclopedias that helps kids do better in school. The reason Karen let Lem in was because Jim Doe, the deputy chief was out of her house watching her. Jim Doe is one of those bad cops, he will pull over women for speeding and then take them to this pig farm and rap them there. Jim Doe is also Karen boyfriend. When lem was about to close the deal with Karen Melford Kean comes in a kills Karen and Bastared. Later that night Melford and Lem go back to Karen’s house to get the receipt for the check Karen gave Lem. When Lem and Melford open the door they say three died bodies, the third one was Karen mother whom Jim Doe killed, so no one will know about Karen and Bastared. Jim Doe, Bastared, Karen and Lem boss the boss of Bobby had something going on that was illegal. Then Lem till Melford why did you killed them, and Melford said I will tell you when you can answer me this question: Why does the govern keep putting people in jail, even if they know it makes them worst off?

only pain and pleasure matter/ all that matters is the amount of pleasure or pain produced by an action. Happiness is at the end of all endeavors. Act Utilitarianism and basic ethical theme:
1. endorses objective guidelines
2. they are ethical consequentialists, good or bad are bought on by own actions
3. utilitarians evaluate each action seperately
4. focuses on the group, greatest good or benefit for the greatest number of people
Consequentialist…ethical theories that claim good or evil
Kantian Theory…Moral law

AU and traditional ethical assumptions:
1. ethics is rational (traditional assumption)
2. utilitarians believe people who share an same ethical framework can discuss moral problems and arrive at mutually acceptable solutions
3. all are moral equals and should be treated impartially

Justification for the ethical standard and theory strengths..
1. clear content makes it easy to understand
2. allows you to evaluate each action seperately
3. seems consistent with basic objective of humans (happiness)

Act Utilitianism calculations or hedonistic calculus

1. intensity 2. duration 3. certaintity 4. propinquity (how remote) 5. fecundity (hown likely) 6. purity 7. extent

Problems with AU ..calculations

1. difficult ot identify all consequences of action long-term and short-term
2. difficult to weigh pleasure and pain for different kinds of things
3. time consumption..AU calculations may take up loads of your time
4. results contrary to moral intuttions, will sacrifice the minority for the majority
5. moral luck, if i send a check in to charity and it gets lost, no benefical action resulted from my feel good action
Contrasting AU with Kantian ethical theory

they accept rationality-impartiality-universalizability
2. both claim that legitimate moral guidelines are based on objective considerations
3. AU bases moral guidelines on pleasure, pain, happiness—K bases moral guidelines on thoughts of reason. AU focuses on good and bad to actions whereas K connects good and bad to following general rules w/o exception. AU relates good and bad to the group whereas K focuses on the individual

Jesse G--

Cephalus- defined justice as paying your debts and telling the truth
Socrates- says justice is good for something else and in itself
Polemarchus defined justice as helping your friends and hurting your enemies
Thracymachus- helping the strong, injustice was good
Glaucon- felt justice was good for something else but not in itself

Ethical Insights
-Benthem was a Utilitarianism
believed Punishment should involve 3 things
-has to harm them bad/evil
-someone has to believe you did something wrong.
Punishment has to turn out to do something good

Hedonism—-Someone interested with nothing but pleasure.

Asceticism—-tries to deny themselves pleasure and might result in pain

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