Reading notes –

Punishment: the rational of punishment chapters 1,3,4,9

Punishment: whatever shape it may assume, is an evil.
1. The act by which the evil is considered as being produced.
2. What is considered as being the result of that same act the evil itself which is thus produced.

Punishment – must be a cause of something
With respect to a given individual, the recurrence of an offence may be provided against in 3 ways.
1. By taking him the physical power of offending
2. By taking away the desire of offending
3. By making him afraid of offending

Plain cases that should not be inflicted:
1. Where it is groundless
2. Must be inefficacious
3. Unprofitable and too expensive
4. When it is needless

Law of retaliation was often adopted in the early attempts at legislation.

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