Ross deontologist and looks at how to navigate conflict of duties.

  • Ross thinks that duties CAN come into conflict; his ethics more flexible than Kant's

Utilitarian, duties are just heuristic principles. ( heuristic- a way of finding an answer)

Kant is not consequalist look at duty not result, Kant will claim duties cannot conflict

Ross thinks that duties can come into conflict, Ross has slightly more flexible ethics.

Categorical imperative, not a duty but a rule that explains what the duties are and its explains duties in a form of maxims (Kant)

Maxim - explain what to do in a certain situation, they don’t apply to all situations but in some.

Kant's moral maxims will be all from the categorical imperative

Imperative a command = then do

Hypothetical imperative= if/then
-if you will/want x, then do y
-don't apply to everyone at all times; only if you want x

Kant says it all comes down to happiness, and everyone reasons to get happy (sets up for categorical imperative)

Formulations of Categorical Imperative:
1. Everyone has reason. If I people to follow a certain set of behaviors, I should follow them too. Act only on the maxims I can will be universalized ( applied to everyone always)
Soprano example
1b. Laws of nature

2. Respect Others/ Treat others only as ends, never merely as means
3. Kingdom of Ends / ( Kingdom of heaven) act as though you are always part of royalty good society. Treat others with 2 and 4. probably never going to reach this society:everyone sees others as ends not means, we need to freely chose to treat people with respect and dignity
4. Autonomy - self-rule (giving yourself the law) / Heteronomy rules form someone else

Ross - Intuitionism

Prima Facie Duties
-"at first glance"
-list of duties I think I generally have
-no necessary conflict between them

Actual Duties
When going between PF duties and A duties we choose by asking which duty is the most important at the time. Some times the most important duty is not the same and sometimes the duties work together. decide which is best based on moral feeling
-can conflict

Kant = reason Ross = intuition (what feels right in our gut)
-Kant; less situational; challenges us, holds us to higher standard; inflexible
-Ross; more flexible/situational; seems more practical
Why isn't Ross utilitarianism…. Dying friend example
Kant-don't like to murderer, slippery slope of justifying lies
Ross-lie to murderer, duty to friend outweighs duty to not lie, IN THIS SITUATION

Weighing the weight of the duties themselves… Not the duty

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