Cmpgroup2lecturenotesmar1

Stan Kosilesky.

Review Day

Utilitarianism is a form of consequentialism.
Eithical egoism is doing what's best for yourself - also a form of consequentialism.
Both are responses to the result of an action.

  • Utilitarianism is best result for everyone.
  • Ethical egoism is best for yourself.
  • Hedonism is going for most pleasure and least pain.

A Hedonist is an ethical egoist but an ethical egoist isn't always a Hedonist.

Deontology is acting based on the reason rather than the result - the cause.

  • For example not acting because it goes against principles.
  • Divine command theory is an extreme example of Deontology.

Prisoners Dilemma.

  • Best way to win; play fair, then give back to them back what they give you.
  • Polemarchus' view is similar to the prisoners dilemma.

Descriptive Claims - Claims about the way the world is.
Prescriptive Claims - Claims about the way the world ought to be.

  • Naturalistic Fallacy - Confusing is's with ought's.

Normative Claims - Type of prescriptive claims - the way things very strongly ought to be.

  • Prescriptive claim backed up by a reason.

Act Utilitarian - Act by the consequences.
Rule Utilitarian - Act by the general results.

  • Hitler Example.

*Act Utilitarian would not save Hitler because it leads to a bad result.
*Rule Utilitarian would save them because generally saving a person is good.
Then comes into the play the rule of Heuristics/rule of thumb.

  • When stuck in a bind and have to act fast.
  • For example saving a man who then goes and kills 15 people.
    • The Act Utilitarian would say he did wrong but he acted on a Heuristic principle.
    • The Rule Utilitarian would say he did good cause he saved the man and in most cases saving the man would be good, he didn't know he would kill 15 people.

Farren Rector

Very helpful, like the format!

Mill:

  • emphasizes happiness
  • quality; some pleasers qualitatively better
  • person understands both pleasure, one is " better than the other
  • ex. shakespear vs. TV

Bentham:

  • act ulilitarian
  • empasizes pleaure
  • quantity, all about #'s

Example:

Homer- duff - 10
Homer - wine- 7

Allred- duff- 2
Allred win- 9

Bentham says duff would be better because higher number
Mill would say Allred becuase it's a more quality pleasure

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