Nuta Ngangana's notes ( feel free to make changes , may not be the best notes)

Part 1

Singer ( these are all singers opinions in part one)
-uses utilitarian Bentham to explain his arguement
- speciesism: If you believe one species is superior over another form of species
- He compared specieism to racism
- believed if there is no cognitive difference between species then the mistreatment of that species is wrong
-also believed we should treat animals exactly like people but we should think about what makes them happy or sad (if you don't your a specisist.)
-He also believed if you think the suffering of humans is bad then it's bad for animals

2 Unjust practices: eating meat and medical experimentation

Pig farms & slaughter houses
-not okay
-he believes animals are tortured for little gain
-the benefits we get from eating meat doesn't justify the pain animals get put through
-the suffering of animals affect us as well in these places, i.e hormones added to our milk, meat; over use of antibiotics
-in factory farms we have the sources to gain the same benefits we get from animals, but we choose not to.
-cheaper to be inhumane to animals, but its morally wrong.

Singer's Problem with eating meat:
1. Animals must be slaughtered/ torchured
2. Not even clear that we are getting a benefit from it
—can get protein from other sources

medical experientation
-animals used for experiments
-not okay cause our anatomy is different and most are irrelevant to humans
-animals can't give consent to these test knowing the risk
-don't get helpful information on drugs by testing animals
-its is unjustified the way animals are tested
-we do absolutely anything to animals to see how we can reap benefits

Singer's Problem with medical experimentation:
1. Animal physiologies are different than humans
2. Animals can't give consent
3. Allows for suffering that probably does not give much benefit

-sensiblity testing
-still problems because we don't take animal suffering seriously
-biological differences and consent are major problems
-experimentation and factory farms are both unjustifiable

Part 2
What beings matter ethically/ what kinds of individuals/groups/ entities do I need to take into account in my decision making?
answer historically: take into account all humans (the will of God is also a possibility)
singer: take in account any beings that suffer (mammals, at very least vertebrates; not trees- can't suffer so they don't matter)


anthropocentrism ** strong (Descartes): don't care about animals at all; only humans matter—only things you have ethical obligations to are human beings; connection of pain to the mind, therefore animals don't feel pain; animals don't have souls; animals are machines

** weak (Cohen): only human beings matter but how we treat animals might affect us so might have to pay attention to how we treat them for our good.

**Animal Rights/Liberation (Singer /Regan)

singer disagrees—> Biocentric Individualism(Taylor/Varner):all living things matter/ anything that strives to preserve itself matters.
If it's not bothering you, don't bother it.
Let it be unless there is a reason not to.

Community centered approaches

Ecocentrism (Land Ethic/ Deep Ecology/ Ecofeminism) (Leopold/Naess): Not individual animals that matter; but whole group (communities)

Dualism: view things with two polar opposites i.e white/black; male/female

Bodies (mechanistics)

Minds (free)

Emily Best: just wanted to add a few things from my notes!

Descartes: "animals are like machines"
-says our mind has capacities that animals' do not
-says it's not the pain; its the connection of pain to the mind. So, if animals don't have these capacities, they cannot feel pain
-says animals don't suffer

Kant: "humans are rational, while animals are not"
-between strong and weak anthropocentrism
-says human can treat others with respect, but animals can't; so we should be able to treat animals with no respect
-says there is one way we should take the treatment of animals seriously: when the way we treat animals may have affect on the character of the human being
Ex: Shephard wrong to kill his dog (loyalty)
-focus' more on reason. humans have rationale; animals don't

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