For a utilitarian, duties are just heuristic principles: a way for finding a answer…a rule

Ross: there's a way to figure out which duties are the best when they conflict
- Duties can come into conflict with another
-Categorical Imperative: no if's, just do "y".
- Ethics are a little bit more flexible but cause more probems
-animals follow instincts and desires, not what makes happiness

Kant follows reasonable behaviors (the ability to think backwards)

If I want to be moral:
5 Formulations for Categorial Impairment
1. Biggest One!
- Act only on those maxims that will be universalized (apply to everyone always). Would I be willing to have everyone follow these maxims al the time?
- If I want someone to follow a certain set of behvaiors, then I should follows those behaviors as well.
-Do not be a hypocrite (do unto others)
-Mob behavior is very smart political behavior
^great strategy as long as most people dont pursue it, if everyone joins, then society begins to fall apart
-Mafia ethics: I want to get away with whatever I can but I want you all to follow the rules so I can make all the money

1B. Laws of nature: laws that cannot be broken such as the law of gravity
-Kant: not very religious, more of a rationalist…a deist
-Deist: someone who believe in God, but "made it like a watch, then went away and had a cigarette"
-being reasonable is acting upon rules you want others to follow

2. Respect others/treat others only as ends, never merely as means
- I can't treat you as a means for my happiness
Kant: best way to respect a murder is to kill them
-hold accountable to our rules
-treating them as a rational being with dignity and rights (that's why he tells jigsaw the truth)

4. Autonomy- self rule (giving yourself the law)/heteronomy rule from someone else
-follow ^ rules because its law, but also because its moral

3. Kingdom of Ends/ (Kingdom of Heaven)

Ross: intuitionism
-prima facie duties- at first glance—> list of duties I think I generally have
-dont conflict with another in the abstract, if they do, we have intuitive grasp
-actual duties
-more conservative (more often accord with our basic moral instincts)

** The lecture about being moral from today, are those just Kan's views on how you are to be moral?

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