Kant thinks trust is the basis for society….when you lie, it hurts society

  • lying is the most disrespectful thing someone can do because it takes away their freedom
  • two duties never conflict and once a duty, always a duty

Ross (deontologist) believes duties sometimes do conflict

  • deontologist focuses on principles/duties: intentions
  • consequentialist focuses on outcomes


  • not much difference between killing and letting die
  • do not like to lying or conflict

If I didn't lie about where my friend was, then they would go and kill him/her

  • Indirectly responsible
  • Kant would say I didn't even help


  • Rules he follows
  • Maxims- Act according to moral principles
  • "I am not helping to kill"

-Kant believes in death penalty

-Kant says look at duties not the consequences

  • follow rules because its the right thing to do
  • only one thing we can call entirely good
  • good in itself (inherently)- good will (the desire to do the right thing)

- Happiness- eduaimonia: the good life (good character)

  • the highest good for Greeks
  • Happiness for an evil person is not good


  • not all virtues are good because they can be bad if put to bad use
  • Only humans count because of morality
  • Categorical Imperative: rule that tells me how to make moral rules called maxims, these are life principles

Examples of these rules are:

  • do whatever you can to get ahead
  • always obey your mother
  • tell the truth
  • lie to save other peoples feelings


  • go to the store…imperative
  • lets go to the store…not an imperative

Kant: we have a bunch of norms at any moment but most are hypothetical imperatives

  • "If you will X, then do Y."
  • hypothetical (if)
  • imperative (then)

-only binded to these if you want the hypothetical part

Kant: what makes us different from animals is we can set goals and make a chain to accomplish them by using our minds and hypothetical imperatives
Kant: believes happiness is the goal for everyone…but everyone has different things that make them happy

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