Anthropods__ = human beings

- Believes that only human beings matter ethically
- STRONG- Descartes
- MIDDLE- Kant
- WEAK- Cohen (plants and animals matter too)
- suffering of animals might matter, but only because it may affect human beings
- polite way of say speciesism is okay

Singer- animals matter if they can feel….also a utilitarian
Descartes (strong)- animals done have minds nor suffer only ethical obligations to how you treat humans; animals are machines
Kant- the way we treat animals is the way we treat human beings too (bad character)> appears weak but is actually strong
Cohen (weak)- a speciesist, but humans matter more than animals
believes animals suffering matters)
Loyalty and gratitude are important qualities to Kant

Cohen says that animal suffering is bad, but not as bad as human suffering

(being rational, part of moral community)
- being rational means you can make decisions
- Pain is a physiological thing
- Kant and Cohen think that animal's do not have rights (deontologists)
Regan- deontologist, moral agency and moral patience

Behavior of moral humans VS. animals

To think ethically, you should think "how should I structure my life?"
- Kant does not think animals do this.

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