Bentham: "The Rationale of Punishment"

-British philosopher 18th century
-Founder of utilitarianism
-main crime in the 18th century was for debt….some of these people were exported to Austraila.
-his reforms helped create prisions.
*Currently, claiming that prision is for rehab, however he programs we keep puching towards them come back.

Punishment = always bad
1) Has to harm you
2) Has to be intentional
3) Someone must believe your guilty

-For the better good: deterrance-teaching lessons for others

Key Terms:

-Normative Claim: the way something ought to be

Bentham: Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation

Principal of Utility…
-Nature has placed mankind under the governance of two sovereign masters, pain and pleasure. It is for them alone to point out what we ought to do, as well as to determine what we shall do.

Key Terms:

-Hedonism: Someone acts only for pleasure (Epicurus) live simple; live longer.
*Epicurus is based in virtue theory (pleasure)

-Asceticism: Someone who tries to deny themselves pleasure and give themselves pain. This is the opposite to the principle of utility.

Moving back to Bentham, we discussed the Principal of Utility and the four principals of utilitarianism.
1. Intensity
2. Certainty
3. Duration
4. Cost
These are the four applied principals of utility to society. Bentham is considered a Hedonist, a person who believes in what is fun (I think). Being an Hedonist means you follow the the Principals of utility. Epicurus also believed in Hedonism.

We also discussed the Principle of Asceticism which is deontology which follows traditional Judeo-christian ethics.

-Intentions matter less than outcomes. Consequalism looks at the end result.

-Nature's 2 masters: pleasure and pain. These masters help us learn how to avoid obstacles.


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