Q: What sorts of beings (entities/individuals etc) do I need to consider if I want to make an ethical decision? [For ethics, what kinds of beings matter?]

Anthropacentrism: The only that that matters ethically is humans.
Anthropos: human being

Strong: animals don't suffer ,they don't a mind. (Descartes - early 1600s) (Kant - late 1700s)
Weak: animals only matter because they effect humans. (Cohen - 1980s)

Descartes- animals are like machines, when they're hit the sound you hear is them shutting down.Animals have no mind .He believes that modern science with animal testing is good.He also believes that animals have no soul.

Kant * animals don't matter but you can judge the heart of a man by the way he treats animals.When you hurt an animal that person starts developing character flaws of ungreatfulness.Animals do generous things for humans so we should act in kind.To hurt an animal begins to make the person inhuman.Cruelty to animals soon becomes cruelty to humans.Animals have no conscience.So as for animal testing he believes that animals are a means to an end. The benefit for the human race over rules the animal's suffering.Experimentation on animals is not cruel but neccessary. Animals can't judge.Animals don't have the compassity to for moral recignation.
- animals do generous things for humans, for we should not use their bodies for making jello or glue
Cohen -believe that animals matter a little. There is no cause for uneccessary suffering, but the shouldn't have rights because that lack the compasity to understand rights.Animals are not as important so humans.He also believes that animals are ammoral because they don't make ethical demands on humans,and humans don't put ethical demands on animals

Singer(1970) and reagan - animals shouldn't have rights. animal liberation. If you are a human being rights are important and matter. Rights give pleasure, happiness. Giving an animal rights does nothing, they do nothing with them. Some animals should have rights (Gorillas, Apes, Chimpanzees)

Regan - animals should have rights

Kant and Cohen - The capacity for mutual reciprocation/mutual recognition. Animals have certain characteristics to get things they want. They use hunting instincts for food. Animals do not reason backwards.


Animal Rights/Animal Liberation: Singer (1970s on) and Regan

Principle of ascentism - Life based on pleasure

Principle of utility-maximizing pleasure and minimizing pain
1. Will this pleasure lead to other pleasures
Utilitarianism - is for social benefit

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