Cmpgroup7environmental Ethics April 12th Mallory Stock Dow

Environmental Ethics
Traditional western ethical perspectives are anthropocentric-human centered. Humans are thought to have more value than non-human things therefore when things are doone to non-humans to promote a humans interest, it is not justified. Back in the 70's peolpe started to question and rethink relationships humans have with their natural environment. Some thought we were facing an environmental crisis. It has been argued that biblically men are to dominate over land and animals and that animals are "ordered to mans use". Still there was lots of controversy and feelings that our planet and it's resources are being overused. To prevent environmental crisis there was a call for a "basic change of values" and environmental ethics was developed. The point of environmental ethics was to assign intrinsic value to the natural environment and it's non-human contents. People began to advocate for an appreciation and conservation of things natural, wild, and free. Many argued against these ethical insights. Still they stood there ground arguing back that species protection is a moral duty and that natural processes deserve respect.
Deep ecology was formed in '73 by Naess. This endorses biospheric egalitarianism, which is the view that all living things are alike in having value in theri own right, independent of their usefulness to others. This simply means no unneccessary harm or damage should be caused to nature. People need to quit being selfish and come in tune with nature. This relationship will allow people to take better care of the world. Self-Realization is the reconnection of the shriveled human individual with the wider natural environment. A deep satisfaction with other forms of life contributes to our life quality.
Many argue this still. many say nature is just another dependent on humans interests and purposes. Some have even claimed that deep ecology only protects the nature of those who are well to do and it's another way of disposing the world's indigenous people. They do not believe deep ecology is applicable to different social, economic, or cultural contexts.
Some feminists believe that the poor treatment of nature is another reflection of the poor treatment of women. Men associate nature with women therefore not respecting nature.
The positism of science and technology has disenchanted nature and destroyed our sense of awe and wonder toward it. They have done this by seeing natural processes as predictable and able to be manipulated. They also promise limitless knowledge and power. Some critical theorist find this to disrupting our natural relatuionship with nature.
Horkheimer and Adorno developed the project of domination. This requires the suppression of our own inner nature and to have people gain a re-enchanted aesthetic attitude of sensuous immediency toward nature.
Freya Matthews and new animists argue for the reconceptualizing of the boundry between a person and non-persons. We should place an emphasis on syneregy and what is already in place. We need to promote synergies between newcomers and older native populations in ways that maintain natural flow and promote further developing of egological processes. This will allow us and the world to grow old together with grace and dignity.
Bookchins social ecology says the outer physical world is first nature, from which culture, or second nature, has evolved. We choose to put ourselves at the service of natural evolution, help maintain complexity and diversity, diminish suffering, and reduce pollution. We need to use our gifts of socialability, communication, and intelligence as if we were nature rendered conscious.
Some traditional ethical theories beliefs on environmental ethics.
Utilitarians are for the best interest of all sentient beings, including non-humans, affected by an action should be taken equally into consideration when assessing the action. But if the action produces a beneficial result that benefits a group tremendously, this outweighs the action. The utilitarians stance is unclear on environmental ethics. Deontologist believe there are several distinct marols or duties to uphold. The treatment something recieves depends on the intrinsic value of those involved. Each individual living thing in nature all have equal intrinsic value which entitles them to moral respect. Virtue ethics central focus is humans flourishing, and may be unable to support a genuine moral concern for non-humans.
Mallory Stock-Dow

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