Punishment is an evil resulting to an individual from the direct intention of another, on account of some act that appears to have been done, or omitted.
An evil- a physical evil- a pain, loss of pleasure. Results from the direct intention of another.
If done out of want, sport, ill-will, or antipathy-not a punishment.
When the offence is of positive cast- the result of the punishment is negative.
-Ammendment or reformation-being committed morals will be reformed.
-Disablement-disable them from commiting the crime(s).
-Determent-preventing the action from occuring again by installing fear.
-Self-defense-defending the community from the offender, man of authority giving a punishment to an offender based on all offences of that sort that have been presented to him, protecting one self from an offender.
-Self-perservation-same as self defense.
-Safe Custody-imprisonment
Restraint-being restrained to prevent the crime from being commited again.
When the offence is of negative cast the result of the punishment is positive.
-Compulsion or constraint-similar to restaint just in the negative cast
-Torture-intense pain to the body when not neccessary.
-Compensation or satisfaction
-Taxation-extracting out of the pocket

Particular prevention-applies to the delinquent himself
General prevention-applicable to all members of the community
To be preventative:
1. Take away the physical power to offend
2. Take away the desire to offend-reform the moral thinking
3. Make them afraid to offend
punishment becomes security.

When should punishment not be inflicted:
1. Groundless
2. Inefficacious (failing to produce the desired effect)
3. Unprofitable or too expensive- if the evil of the punishment exceeds the evil of the offence
4. Needless-the end can be accomplished when it can be done at a cheaper rate, by instruction, by terror, by influence

Retaliation-blood for blood, or an eye for an eye, etc…
Simple, little time and thought put into enforcing it, if you commit the crime, you know what your punishment will be.
Not applicable in all cases, can't be applied to civil suites, public offences, property offences, and it is inflexible.

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