Questions about clinical research found in article
• How do practitioners determine whether a potential new intervention represents an advance over current methods?
• How do they determine whether the new intervention would avoid harms currently incurred?
• How do they determine whether it would save lives currently lost?
• Who would be willing to manufacture a new intervention without knowing first whether it works?
• What does should be used?
• How often should the new drug be taken?

What is clinical research?
• Clinical research (human subjects research) is research done on humans, instead of animals, to find possible cures, treatments, and prevent illnesses
o Cancer, chronic diseases, heart disease, Alzheimer’s disease, etc.
• Focuses on improving human health and the well-being of humans

Ethical Questions
• Whether or when it can be acceptable to expose someone to risk and burdens for the benefit of others?
o The answer depends on the people who are being put at risk and their relationship with the person being helped
• What’s the difference between a consenting adult receiving an operation to obtain a kidney for a sibling and the same consenting adult receiving an operation to obtain the same kidney for an unidentified person?

Key info
• Clinical research maybe seen as unethical to individuals because it involves putting humans at risk to save other individuals.
• The Nuremberg cord says that consent is “essential” in clinical research but didn’t include that independent ethics review and approval are important.
• Making consent a necessarily would exclude children, dementia patients, and people in emergency situations. So they said the consent must be received from the patient’s representative.
• The U.S regulations do not place clear limits on the risk to which competent and consenting adults may be exposed to. While they place strict limits on the level of research risks to which those unable to consent may be exposed to.
• One school of thought justifies clinical research by arguing that it should not be any different than clinical care in the sense that subjects shouldn’t be denied any beneficial treatment that is available in the clinical setting.
• The main ethical problem with clinical research is the fact that subjects are exposed to harm to benefit others.
• According to many guidelines non-beneficial research is ethically acceptable as long as subjects aren’t exposed to more harm than in their daily lives.
• Jonas believes that clinical research doesn’t have as great of an impact on the future as people make it seem. If they are finding cures to baldness and arthritis that doesn’t necessarily help mankind.

This article goes directly with animal suffering but instead of animals, humans are the main concern. With animal suffering Kant and Cohen didn’t believe it was right because we shouldn’t harm animals for our benefit when it isn’t necessary. With clinical research human subjects are used to find cures, treatments and prevention for illnesses. The only thing is that sometimes these human subjects must be exposed to harmful things for the benefit of others. I think that this is the same as animal suffering but is taking more serious because humans are more important than animals generally. I think Descartes would be completely against clinical research. He feels that only humans matter so he wouldn’t be for clinical research. He would prefer for them to test these things on animals. Clinical research and Animal rights/Animal liberation are similar in the fact that they both conflict pain or non-pleasure on to some subject (animal or human) for future pleasure.

1. Ethically, how do Clinical Research and Animal Research differ?
2. Why does society’s idea of ethics matter if the subject has consented to the clinical research? Shouldn’t only their own personal ethical idea of ethics be considered?
3. How do ethics and morals differ in clinical research?

Emily Winner——I chose to answer the first qustion: Ethically, how do clinical research and Animal research differ? I think that this question is a matter of oppinion, because i think that there is no true answeres to ethics. I think most people feel like animal research is okay vs. clinical research becasue humans are better to us than animals. Humans are more important, and they have a role in our lives. Like we discussed in class, although many people are okay with animal testing, there are many people who are not okay with it. These people obviosuly think it is ethically bad to test animals. This is where the matter of opinion comes in. When talking about ethics we talked about many different philosophers, but everything these philosophers say is what they think is correct. However, it doesn't mean that what they say is indeed correct. So to answer the above question, clinical research and animal research only differ ethically because people feel differently about them.

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